Aggleton R. et al.
in Journal of Instrumentation, 12 (2017), P12019. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/12/12/P12019
© 2017 CERN. A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A crucial requirement of this upgrade is to provide the ability to reconstruct all charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above 2-3 GeV within 4 μs so they can be used in the Level-1 trigger decision. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented, where track candidates are reconstructed using a projective binning algorithm based on the Hough Transform, followed by a combinatorial Kalman Filter. A hardware demonstrator using MP7 processing boards has been assembled to prove the entire system functionality, from the output of the tracker readout boards to the reconstruction of tracks with fitted helix parameters. It successfully operates on one eighth of the tracker solid angle acceptance at a time, processing events taken at 40 MHz, each with up to an average of 200 superimposed proton-proton interactions, whilst satisfying the latency requirement. The demonstrated track-reconstruction system, the chosen architecture, the achievements to date and future options for such a system will be discussed.
PhD thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 2017.
This dissertation proposes a novel smart camera platform serving as a flexible data acquisition system for scientific applications. Current technological progress offers increasing performance in the areas we consider, namely high data-throughput, data processing, and detector performance. Prevalent data acquisition solutions typically focus on one of these aspects. However, driven by science, experiments experience increasing demands in terms of data throughput, speed and flexibility. In this dissertation, we introduce a system which, in addition to being able to provide high-speed data transfer, is also capable of interpreting the incoming information at an early stage. In order to demonstrate the full potential of the smart camera platform, we focus on X-ray imaging with synchrotron light sources. X-ray imaging applications can investigate the traits of technological and biological processes over microseconds for radiography, and milliseconds for tomography applications. These applications may require different sensors, and include complex experiment operations. The new smart camera platform is part of a larger project, UFO, which introduces a new concept for X-ray imaging. On-line data assessment is used to provide a data-driven feedback and active management of both the process and data acquisition procedure. This is accomplished using a GPU platform for fast reconstruction, embedded on-camera data processing, and integrating smart camera in a high-throughput data acquisition system. The final design of the smart camera platform consists of a custom high-performance FPGA board, providing continuous data transfer, embedded image processing, and a flexible input stage. In the IMAGE beamline of ANKA, camera is integrated in the new control system, and used in real-life applications. A maximum data-throughput of up to 8 GB/s is achieved. A custom image-based algorithm is implemented in the FPGA, with stringent real-time requirements, able to increase native sensor speed up to five times while reducing the amount of transfered data. Several image sensors are used, with resolutions of up to 20 megapixels and frame rates of up to 5 kfps. The smart camera platform was also used in non-imaging applications, stemming from the flexible input stage. The proposed camera architecture enables the user to modify the current system for any kind of high data-throughput applications, and to modify and implement custom processing algorithms.
First assessor: Prof. Dr. M. Weber
Second assessor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. J. Becker
Hanschke D., Danilewsky A., Helfen L., Hamann E., Baumbach T.
in Physical Review Letters, 119 (2017), 215504. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.215504
© 2017 American Physical Society. Correlated x-ray diffraction imaging and light microscopy provide a conclusive picture of three-dimensional dislocation arrangements on the micrometer scale. The characterization includes bulk crystallographic properties like Burgers vectors and determines links to structural features at the surface. Based on this approach, we study here the thermally induced slip-band formation at prior mechanical damage in Si wafers. Mobilization and multiplication of preexisting dislocations are identified as dominating mechanisms, and undisturbed long-range emission from regenerative sources is discovered.
Gasilov S., Mittone A., Dos Santos Rolo T., Polyakov S., Zholudev S., Terentyev S., Blank V., Bravin A., Baumbach T.
in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 24 (2017) 1137-1145. DOI:10.1107/S1600577517012772
© International Union of Crystallography, 2017. In this work a double-crystal setup is employed to study compound refractive lenses made of single-crystal diamond. The point spread function of the lens is calculated taking into account the lens transmission, the wavefront aberrations, and the ultra-small-angle broadening of the X-ray beam. It is shown that, similarly to the wavefront aberrations, the ultra-small-angle scattering effects can significantly reduce the intensity gain and increase the focal spot size. The suggested approach can be particularly useful for the characterization of refractive X-ray lenses composed of many tens of unit lenses.A double-crystal setup is used to quantify aberrations and to assess the influence of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering on the optical properties of a single-crystal diamond compound refractive lens.
Farago T., Mikulik P., Ershov A., Vogelgesang M., Hanschke D., Baumbach T.
in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 24 (2017) 1283-1295. DOI:10.1107/S1600577517012255
© International Union of Crystallography, 2017. An open-source framework for conducting a broad range of virtual X-ray imaging experiments, syris, is presented. The simulated wavefield created by a source propagates through an arbitrary number of objects until it reaches a detector. The objects in the light path and the source are time-dependent, which enables simulations of dynamic experiments, e.g. four-dimensional time-resolved tomography and laminography. The high-level interface of syris is written in Python and its modularity makes the framework very flexible. The computationally demanding parts behind this interface are implemented in OpenCL, which enables fast calculations on modern graphics processing units. The combination of flexibility and speed opens new possibilities for studying novel imaging methods and systematic search of optimal combinations of measurement conditions and data processing parameters. This can help to increase the success rates and efficiency of valuable synchrotron beam time. To demonstrate the capabilities of the framework, various experiments have been simulated and compared with real data. To show the use case of measurement and data processing parameter optimization based on simulation, a virtual counterpart of a high-speed radiography experiment was created and the simulated data were used to select a suitable motion estimation algorithm; one of its parameters was optimized in order to achieve the best motion estimation accuracy when applied on the real data. syris was also used to simulate tomographic data sets under various imaging conditions which impact the tomographic reconstruction accuracy, and it is shown how the accuracy may guide the selection of imaging conditions for particular use cases.The flexible and efficient framework syris is presented and its capabilities for the simulation of four-dimensional X-ray imaging experiments are demonstrated by two exemplary applications.
Kopmann A., Chilingaryan S., Vogelgesang M., Dritschler T., Shkarin A., Shkarin R., Dos Santos Rolo T., Farago T., Van De Kamp T., Balzer M., Caselle M., Weber M., Baumbach T.
in 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, NSS/MIC/RTSD 2016, 2017-January (2017), 8069895. DOI:10.1109/NSSMIC.2016.8069895
© 2016 IEEE. New imaging stations aim for high spatial and temporal resolution and are characterized by ever increasing sampling rates and demanding data processing workflows. Key to successful imaging experiments is to open up high-performance computing resources. This includes carefully selected components for computing hardware and development of advanced imaging algorithms optimized for efficient use of parallel processor architectures. We present the novel UFO computing platform for online data processing for imaging experiments and image-based feedback. The platform handles the full data life cycle from the X-ray detector to long-term data archives. Core components of this system are an FPGA platform for ultra-fast data acquisition, the GPU-based UFO image processing framework, and the fast control system “Concert”. Reconstruction algorithms implemented in the UFO framework are optimized for the latest GPU architectures and provide a reconstruction throughput in the GB/s-range. The control system “Concert” integrates high-speed computing nodes and fast beamline devices and thus enables image-based control loops and advanced workflow automation for efficient beam time usage. Low latencies are ensured by direct communication between FPGA and GPUs using AMDs DirectGMA technology. Time resolved tomography is supported by cutting edge regularization methods for high quality reconstructions with a reduced number of projections. The new infrastructure at ANKA has dramatically accelerated tomography from hours to second and resulted in new application fields, like high-throughput tomography, pump-probe radiography and stroboscopic tomography. Ultra-fast X-ray cine-tomography for the first time allows one to observe internal dynamics of moving millimeter-sized objects in real-time.
Gasilov S., Dos Santos Rolo T., Mittone A., Polyakov S., Terentyev S., Farago T., Blank V., Bravin A., Baumbach T.
in Optics Express, 25 (2017) 25090-25097. DOI:10.1364/OE.25.025090
© 2017 Optical Society of America. Quality of a refractive compound X-ray lens can be limited by imperfections in surfaces of unit lenses and stacking precision. In general case both the lens transmission and optical aberrations define properties of a beam in the lens exit plane; together they can be expressed in terms of the generalized pupil function. In this work we measure this function for a diamond single crystal compound refractive lens. Consequently, we apply the pupil function to evaluate the performance of the examined compound refractive X-ray lens. A number of practically important conclusions can be drawn from such analysis.
Aggleton R. et al.
in 2017 27th International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications, FPL 2017 (2017), 8056825. DOI:10.23919/FPL.2017.8056825
© 2017 Ghent University. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is scheduled for a major upgrade in the next decade in order to meet the demands of the new High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Amongst others, a new tracking system is under development including an outer tracker capable of rejecting low transverse momentum particles by looking at the coincidences of hits (stubs) in two closely spaced sensor layers in the same tracker module. Accepted stubs are transmitted off-detector for further processing at 40 MHz. In order to maintain under the increased luminosity the Level-1 trigger rate at 750 kHz, tracker data need to be included in the decision making process. For this purpose, a system architecture has to be developed that will be able to identify particles with transverse momentum above 3 GeV/c by building tracks out of stubs, while achieving an overall processing latency of maximum 4us. Targeting these requirements the current paper presents an FPGA-based track finding architecture that identifies track candidates in real-time and bases its functionality on a fully time-multiplexed approach. As a proof of concept, a hardware system has been assembled targeting the MP7 MicroTCA processing card that features a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, demonstrating a realistic slice of the track finder. The paper discusses the algorithms’ implementation and the efficient utilisation of the available FPGA resources, it outlines the system architecture, and presents some of the hardware demonstrator results.
Schmelzle S., Heethoff M., Heuveline V., Losel P., Becker J., Beckmann F., Schluenzen F., Hammel J.U., Kopmann A., Mexner W., Vogelgesang M., Jerome N.T., Betz O., Beutel R., Wipfler B., Blanke A., Harzsch S., Hornig M., Baumbach T., Van De Kamp T.
in Proceedings of SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering, 10391 (2017), 103910P. DOI:10.1117/12.2275959
© 2017 SPIE. Beamtime and resulting SRμCT data are a valuable resource for researchers of a broad scientific community in life sciences. Most research groups, however, are only interested in a specific organ and use only a fraction of their data. The rest of the data usually remains untapped. By using a new collaborative approach, the NOVA project (Network for Online Visualization and synergistic Analysis of tomographic data) aims to demonstrate, that more efficient use of the valuable beam time is possible by coordinated research on different organ systems. The biological partners in the project cover different scientific aspects and thus serve as model community for the collaborative approach. As proof of principle, different aspects of insect head morphology will be investigated (e.g., biomechanics of the mouthparts, and neurobiology with the topology of sensory areas). This effort is accomplished by development of advanced analysis tools for the ever-increasing quantity of tomographic datasets. In the preceding project ASTOR, we already successfully demonstrated considerable progress in semi-automatic segmentation and classification of internal structures. Further improvement of these methods is essential for an efficient use of beam time and will be refined in the current NOVAproject. Significant enhancements are also planned at PETRA III beamline p05 to provide all possible contrast modalities in x-ray imaging optimized to biological samples, on the reconstruction algorithms, and the tools for subsequent analyses and management of the data. All improvements made on key technologies within this project will in the long-term be equally beneficial for all users of tomography instrumentations.
Karpov D., Liu Z., Rolo T.D.S., Harder R., Balachandran P.V., Xue D., Lookman T., Fohtung E.
in Nature Communications, 8 (2017), 280. DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-00318-9
© 2017 The Author(s). Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.