Ametova E., Ferrucci M., Chilingaryan S., Dewulf W.

in Precision Engineering (2018). DOI:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2018.05.016

Abstract

© 2018 Elsevier Inc. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique that allows the reconstruction of an imaged part in the form of a three-dimensional attenuation map. The CT data acquisition process consists of acquiring X-ray transmission images from multiple perspectives. Analysis of the reconstructed attenuation map can provide dimensional and material information about the measured part(s). Therefore, CT is recognized as a solution for quality control tasks, for example dimensional inspection of complex objects with intricate inner geometries. CT measurements can suffer from various sources of error in the measurement procedure. One such influence is the geometrical alignment of the CT instrument components. Typical tomographic reconstruction algorithms impose strict requirements on the relative position and orientation of the three main components: X-ray source, rotation axis of the sample stage, and X-ray detector. Any discrepancy in the actual CT geometry from the geometry assumed by the reconstruction algorithm will contribute to errors in measurements performed on the reconstructed data. There is currently no standardized or easily implementable method for users to compensate geometrical misalignments of the CT instrument. In many cases, the procedure of mechanical adjustment of CT instrument is time consuming and impractical. In this paper, we show that software-based compensation of deviations in CT instrument geometry is an effective alternative to mechanical adjustment of CT instrument. Through computer simulations, we compare qualitatively and quantitatively two methods to compensate CT instrument misalignment: radiographic re-binning (interpolation) and a modified conventional reconstruction algorithm with embedded misalignment compensation.

Sakraker Ozmen I., Joshi A., Bohrk H., Hanschke D., Cecilia A.

in 2018 Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference (2018), AIAA 2018-3588. DOI:10.2514/6.2018-3588

Abstract

© 2018 by Isil Sakraker Özmen, Archana Joshi, Hannah Boehrk, Daniel Haenschke, Angelica Cecilia. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. The cork based DLR Cork and low density DLR ZURAM materials were exposed to heat while being monitored by x-ray radiation in a synchrotron facility. A portable furnace was manufactured to provide the low pressure conditions of the atmospheric entry and the high stagnation heat fluxes. A total of 4 samples were exposed to radiative heating at 10.4 mbar pressure. The sample was rotated inside the furnace by a miniature servomotor to allow for 3D image reconstruction. Furthermore, 2D radiography sequences were also acquired with stationary samples. The charring, char front propagation and volumetric expansion were prominent in the case of DLR Cork. Even though the ZURAM sample did not significantly char, volumetric phenomena were observed even in the virgin regions. 3D image sequences are provided for ablating DLR Cork material, where the surface topology evolution can be observed. Furthermore, individual cork granules could be tracked throughout the ablation. An optical flow analysis was applied to track the carbon fibers following the volumetric phenomena inside the DLR ZURAM samples.

Miko I., van de Kamp T., Trietsch C., Ulmer J.M., Zuber M., Baumbach T., Deans A.R.

in PeerJ, 2018 (2018), e5174. DOI:10.7717/peerj.5174

Abstract

© 2018 Mikó et al. Ceraphronoids are some of the most commonly collected hymenopterans, yet they remain rare in the fossil record. Conostigmus talamasi Mikó and Trietsch, sp. nov. from Baltic amber represents an intermediate form between the type genus, Megaspilus, and one of the most species-rich megaspilid genera, Conostigmus. We describe the new species using 3D data collected with synchrotron-based micro-CT equipment. This non-invasive technique allows for quick data collection in unusually high resolution, revealing morphological traits that are otherwise obscured by the amber. In describing this new species, we revise the diagnostic characters for Ceraphronoidea and discuss possible reasons why minute wasps with a pterostigma are often misidentified as ceraphronoids. Based on the lack of ceraphronoid characteristics, we remove Dendrocerus dubitatus Brues, 1937, Stigmaphronidae, and Radiophronidae from Ceraphronoidea and consider them as incertae sedis. We also provide some guidance for their future classification.

Asadchikov V., Buzmakov A., Chukhovskii F., Dyachkova I., Zolotov D., Danilewsky A., Baumbach T., Bode S., Haaga S., Hanschke D., Kabukcuoglu M., Balzer M., Caselle M., Suvorov E.

in Journal of Applied Crystallography (2018). DOI:10.1107/S160057671801419X

Abstract

© International Union of Crystallography, 2018 This article describes complete characterization of the polygonal dislocation half-loops (PDHLs) introduced by scratching and subsequent bending of an Si(111) crystal. The study is based on the X-ray topo-tomography technique using both a conventional laboratory setup and the high-resolution X-ray image-detecting systems at the synchrotron facilities at KIT (Germany) and ESRF (France). Numerical analysis of PDHL images is performed using the Takagi–Taupin equations and the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) tomographic algorithm.

Rota L., Caselle M., Brundermann E., Funkner S., Gerth C., Kehrer B., Mielczarek A., Makowski D., Mozzanica A., Muller A.-S., Nasse M.J., Niehues G., Patil M., Schmitt B., Schonfeldt P., Steffen B., Weber M.

in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2018). DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2018.10.093

Abstract

© 2018 Synchrotrons and modern FEL light sources operate with bunch repetition rates in the MHz range. The profile of the electron beam inside the accelerator can be characterized with indirect experimental techniques where linear array detectors are employed to measure the emitted synchrotron radiation or the spectrum of a near-IR laser. To improve the performance of modern beam diagnostics we have developed KALYPSO, a detector system operating with a continuous frame rate of up to 2.7 MHz. To facilitate the integration in different experiments, a modular architecture has been adopted. Different semiconductor micro-strip sensors can be connected to front-end ASICs to optimize the quantum efficiency at different photon energies, ranging from visible light up to near-IR. The front-end electronics are integrated within an heterogeneous DAQ consisting of FPGAs and GPUs, which allows scientists to implement real-time data processing algorithms. The current version of the detector is in operation at the KARA synchrotron light source and at the European XFEL. In this contribution we present the detector architecture, the performance results and the on-going technical developments.

Reich S., Gottlicher J., Letzel A., Gokce B., Barcikowski S., dos Santos Rolo T., Baumbach T., Plech A.

in Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, 124 (2018), 71. DOI:10.1007/s00339-017-1503-3

Abstract

© 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) as an attractive process for ligand-free nanoparticle synthesis represents a multiscale problem to understand the mechanisms and achieve control. Atomic and nanoscale processes interacting with macroscale dynamics in the liquid demand for sensitive tools for in-situ and structural analysis. By adding X-ray methods, we enlarge the available information on millimeter-scale bubble formation down to atomic-scale nanoparticle reactions. X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) can resolve the chemical speciation of the ablated material during the ablation from a zinc wire target showing a first oxidation step from zinc to zinc oxide within some 10 min followed by a slower reaction to hydrozincite. X-ray imaging investigations also give additional information on the bubble dynamics as we demonstrate by comparing the microsecond radiography and optical stroboscopy. We show different features of the detachment of the ablation bubble from a free wire. The location of the first collapse occurs in front of the target. While a first rebound bubble possesses an homogeneous interior, the subsequent rebound consists merely of a cloud of microbubbles.

Aggleton R. et al.

in Journal of Instrumentation, 12 (2017), P12019. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/12/12/P12019

Abstract

© 2017 CERN. A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A crucial requirement of this upgrade is to provide the ability to reconstruct all charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above 2-3 GeV within 4 μs so they can be used in the Level-1 trigger decision. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented, where track candidates are reconstructed using a projective binning algorithm based on the Hough Transform, followed by a combinatorial Kalman Filter. A hardware demonstrator using MP7 processing boards has been assembled to prove the entire system functionality, from the output of the tracker readout boards to the reconstruction of tracks with fitted helix parameters. It successfully operates on one eighth of the tracker solid angle acceptance at a time, processing events taken at 40 MHz, each with up to an average of 200 superimposed proton-proton interactions, whilst satisfying the latency requirement. The demonstrated track-reconstruction system, the chosen architecture, the achievements to date and future options for such a system will be discussed.

Hanschke D., Danilewsky A., Helfen L., Hamann E., Baumbach T.

in Physical Review Letters, 119 (2017), 215504. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.215504

Abstract

© 2017 American Physical Society. Correlated x-ray diffraction imaging and light microscopy provide a conclusive picture of three-dimensional dislocation arrangements on the micrometer scale. The characterization includes bulk crystallographic properties like Burgers vectors and determines links to structural features at the surface. Based on this approach, we study here the thermally induced slip-band formation at prior mechanical damage in Si wafers. Mobilization and multiplication of preexisting dislocations are identified as dominating mechanisms, and undisturbed long-range emission from regenerative sources is discovered.

Farago T., Mikulik P., Ershov A., Vogelgesang M., Hanschke D., Baumbach T.

in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 24 (2017) 1283-1295. DOI:10.1107/S1600577517012255

Abstract

© International Union of Crystallography, 2017. An open-source framework for conducting a broad range of virtual X-ray imaging experiments, syris, is presented. The simulated wavefield created by a source propagates through an arbitrary number of objects until it reaches a detector. The objects in the light path and the source are time-dependent, which enables simulations of dynamic experiments, e.g. four-dimensional time-resolved tomography and laminography. The high-level interface of syris is written in Python and its modularity makes the framework very flexible. The computationally demanding parts behind this interface are implemented in OpenCL, which enables fast calculations on modern graphics processing units. The combination of flexibility and speed opens new possibilities for studying novel imaging methods and systematic search of optimal combinations of measurement conditions and data processing parameters. This can help to increase the success rates and efficiency of valuable synchrotron beam time. To demonstrate the capabilities of the framework, various experiments have been simulated and compared with real data. To show the use case of measurement and data processing parameter optimization based on simulation, a virtual counterpart of a high-speed radiography experiment was created and the simulated data were used to select a suitable motion estimation algorithm; one of its parameters was optimized in order to achieve the best motion estimation accuracy when applied on the real data. syris was also used to simulate tomographic data sets under various imaging conditions which impact the tomographic reconstruction accuracy, and it is shown how the accuracy may guide the selection of imaging conditions for particular use cases.The flexible and efficient framework syris is presented and its capabilities for the simulation of four-dimensional X-ray imaging experiments are demonstrated by two exemplary applications.

Gasilov S., Mittone A., Dos Santos Rolo T., Polyakov S., Zholudev S., Terentyev S., Blank V., Bravin A., Baumbach T.

in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 24 (2017) 1137-1145. DOI:10.1107/S1600577517012772

Abstract

© International Union of Crystallography, 2017. In this work a double-crystal setup is employed to study compound refractive lenses made of single-crystal diamond. The point spread function of the lens is calculated taking into account the lens transmission, the wavefront aberrations, and the ultra-small-angle broadening of the X-ray beam. It is shown that, similarly to the wavefront aberrations, the ultra-small-angle scattering effects can significantly reduce the intensity gain and increase the focal spot size. The suggested approach can be particularly useful for the characterization of refractive X-ray lenses composed of many tens of unit lenses.A double-crystal setup is used to quantify aberrations and to assess the influence of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering on the optical properties of a single-crystal diamond compound refractive lens.