Aggleton R. et al.
in Journal of Instrumentation, 12 (2017), P12019. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/12/12/P12019
© 2017 CERN. A new tracking detector is under development for use by the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A crucial requirement of this upgrade is to provide the ability to reconstruct all charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above 2-3 GeV within 4 μs so they can be used in the Level-1 trigger decision. A concept for an FPGA-based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented, where track candidates are reconstructed using a projective binning algorithm based on the Hough Transform, followed by a combinatorial Kalman Filter. A hardware demonstrator using MP7 processing boards has been assembled to prove the entire system functionality, from the output of the tracker readout boards to the reconstruction of tracks with fitted helix parameters. It successfully operates on one eighth of the tracker solid angle acceptance at a time, processing events taken at 40 MHz, each with up to an average of 200 superimposed proton-proton interactions, whilst satisfying the latency requirement. The demonstrated track-reconstruction system, the chosen architecture, the achievements to date and future options for such a system will be discussed.
Gasilov S., Mittone A., Dos Santos Rolo T., Polyakov S., Zholudev S., Terentyev S., Blank V., Bravin A., Baumbach T.
in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 24 (2017) 1137-1145. DOI:10.1107/S1600577517012772
© International Union of Crystallography, 2017. In this work a double-crystal setup is employed to study compound refractive lenses made of single-crystal diamond. The point spread function of the lens is calculated taking into account the lens transmission, the wavefront aberrations, and the ultra-small-angle broadening of the X-ray beam. It is shown that, similarly to the wavefront aberrations, the ultra-small-angle scattering effects can significantly reduce the intensity gain and increase the focal spot size. The suggested approach can be particularly useful for the characterization of refractive X-ray lenses composed of many tens of unit lenses.A double-crystal setup is used to quantify aberrations and to assess the influence of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering on the optical properties of a single-crystal diamond compound refractive lens.
Farago T., Mikulik P., Ershov A., Vogelgesang M., Hanschke D., Baumbach T.
in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 24 (2017) 1283-1295. DOI:10.1107/S1600577517012255
© International Union of Crystallography, 2017. An open-source framework for conducting a broad range of virtual X-ray imaging experiments, syris, is presented. The simulated wavefield created by a source propagates through an arbitrary number of objects until it reaches a detector. The objects in the light path and the source are time-dependent, which enables simulations of dynamic experiments, e.g. four-dimensional time-resolved tomography and laminography. The high-level interface of syris is written in Python and its modularity makes the framework very flexible. The computationally demanding parts behind this interface are implemented in OpenCL, which enables fast calculations on modern graphics processing units. The combination of flexibility and speed opens new possibilities for studying novel imaging methods and systematic search of optimal combinations of measurement conditions and data processing parameters. This can help to increase the success rates and efficiency of valuable synchrotron beam time. To demonstrate the capabilities of the framework, various experiments have been simulated and compared with real data. To show the use case of measurement and data processing parameter optimization based on simulation, a virtual counterpart of a high-speed radiography experiment was created and the simulated data were used to select a suitable motion estimation algorithm; one of its parameters was optimized in order to achieve the best motion estimation accuracy when applied on the real data. syris was also used to simulate tomographic data sets under various imaging conditions which impact the tomographic reconstruction accuracy, and it is shown how the accuracy may guide the selection of imaging conditions for particular use cases.The flexible and efficient framework syris is presented and its capabilities for the simulation of four-dimensional X-ray imaging experiments are demonstrated by two exemplary applications.
Gasilov S., Dos Santos Rolo T., Mittone A., Polyakov S., Terentyev S., Farago T., Blank V., Bravin A., Baumbach T.
in Optics Express, 25 (2017) 25090-25097. DOI:10.1364/OE.25.025090
© 2017 Optical Society of America. Quality of a refractive compound X-ray lens can be limited by imperfections in surfaces of unit lenses and stacking precision. In general case both the lens transmission and optical aberrations define properties of a beam in the lens exit plane; together they can be expressed in terms of the generalized pupil function. In this work we measure this function for a diamond single crystal compound refractive lens. Consequently, we apply the pupil function to evaluate the performance of the examined compound refractive X-ray lens. A number of practically important conclusions can be drawn from such analysis.
Aggleton R. et al.
in 2017 27th International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications, FPL 2017 (2017), 8056825. DOI:10.23919/FPL.2017.8056825
© 2017 Ghent University. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is scheduled for a major upgrade in the next decade in order to meet the demands of the new High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Amongst others, a new tracking system is under development including an outer tracker capable of rejecting low transverse momentum particles by looking at the coincidences of hits (stubs) in two closely spaced sensor layers in the same tracker module. Accepted stubs are transmitted off-detector for further processing at 40 MHz. In order to maintain under the increased luminosity the Level-1 trigger rate at 750 kHz, tracker data need to be included in the decision making process. For this purpose, a system architecture has to be developed that will be able to identify particles with transverse momentum above 3 GeV/c by building tracks out of stubs, while achieving an overall processing latency of maximum 4us. Targeting these requirements the current paper presents an FPGA-based track finding architecture that identifies track candidates in real-time and bases its functionality on a fully time-multiplexed approach. As a proof of concept, a hardware system has been assembled targeting the MP7 MicroTCA processing card that features a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, demonstrating a realistic slice of the track finder. The paper discusses the algorithms’ implementation and the efficient utilisation of the available FPGA resources, it outlines the system architecture, and presents some of the hardware demonstrator results.
Karpov D., Liu Z., Rolo T.D.S., Harder R., Balachandran P.V., Xue D., Lookman T., Fohtung E.
in Nature Communications, 8 (2017), 280. DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-00318-9
© 2017 The Author(s). Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.
PhD thesis, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 2017.
In modern particle accelerators, a precise control of the particle beam is essential for the correct operation of the facility. The experimental observation of the beam behavior relies on dedicated techniques, which are often described by the term “beam diagnostics”. Cutting-edge beam diagnostics systems, in particular several experimental setups currently installed at KIT’s synchrotron light source ANKA, employ line scan detectors to characterize and monitor the beam parameters precisely. Up to now, the experimental resolution of these setups has been limited by the line rate of existing detectors, which is limited to a few hundreds of kHz.
This thesis addresses this limitation with the development a novel line scan detector system named KALYPSO – KArlsruhe Linear arraY detector for MHz rePetition-rate SpectrOscopy. The goal is to provide scientists at ANKA with a complete detector system which will enable real-time measurements at MHz repetition rates. The design of both front-end and back-end electronics suitable for beam diagnostic experiments is a challenging task, because the detector must achieve low-noise performance at high repetition rates and with a large number of channels. Moreover, the detector system must sustain continuous data taking and introduce low-latency. To meet these stringent requirements, several novel components have been developed by the author of this thesis, such as a novel readout ASIC and a high-performance DAQ system.
The front-end ASIC has been designed to readout different types of microstrip sensors for the detection of visible and near-infrared light. The ASIC is composed of 128 analog channels which are operated in parallel, plus additional mixed-signal stages which interface external devices. Each channel consists of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA), a Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) stage and a channel buffer. Moreover, a high-speed output driver has been implemented to interface directly an off-chip ADC. The first version of the ASIC with a reduced number of channels has been produced in a 110 nm CMOS technology. The chip is fully functional and achieves a line rate of 12 MHz with an equivalent noise charge of 417 electrons when connected to a detector capacitance of 1.3 pF.
Moreover, a dedicated DAQ system has been developed to connect directly FPGA readout cards and GPU computing nodes. The data transfer is handled by a novel DMA engine implemented on FPGA. The performance of the DMA engine compares favorably with the current state-of-the-art, achieving a throughput of more than 7 GB/s and latencies as low as 2 us. The high-throughput and low-latency performance of the DAQ system enables real-time data processing on GPUs, as it has been demonstrated with extensive measurements. The DAQ system is currently integrated with KALYPSO and with other detector systems developed at the Institute for Data Processing and Electronics (IPE).
In parallel with the development of the ASIC, a first version of the KALYPSO detector system has been produced. This version is based on a Si or InGaAs microstrip sensor with 256 channels and on the GOTTHARD chip. A line rate of 2.7 MHz has been achieved, and experimental measurements have established KALYPSO as a powerful line scan detector operating at high line rates. The final version of the KALYPSO detector system, which will achieve a line rate of 10 MHz, is anticipated for early 2018.
Finally, KALYPSO has been installed at two different experimental setups at ANKA during several commissioning campaigns. The KALYPSO detector system allowed scientists to observe the beam behavior with unprecedented experimental resolution. First exciting and widely recognized scientific results were obtained at ANKA and at the European XFEL, demonstrating the benefits brought by the KALYPSO detector system in modern beam diagnostics.
First assessor: Prof. Dr. M. Weber
Second assessor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. J. Becker
Adam W. et al.
in Journal of Instrumentation, 12 (2017), P06018. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/12/06/P06018
© 2017 CERN for the benefit of the CMS collaboration.The upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at the CMS experiment. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use n-in-p type silicon sensors and focus further investigations on the optimization of that sensor type. This paper describes the main measurement results and conclusions that motivated this decision.
Gentsos C., Fedi G., Magazzu G., Magalotti D., Modak A., Storchi L., Palla F., Bilei G.M., Biesuz N., Chowdhury S.R., Crescioli F., Checcucci B., Tcherniakhovski D., Galbit G.C., Baulieu G., Balzer M.N., Sander O., Viret S., Servoli L., Nikolaidis S.
in 2017 6th International Conference on Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies, MOCAST 2017 (2017), 7937676. DOI:10.1109/MOCAST.2017.7937676
© 2017 IEEE. The increase of the luminosity in the High Luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will require the use of Tracker information in the evaluation of the Level-1 trigger in order to keep the trigger rate acceptable (i.e.: <1MHz). In order to extract the track information within the latency constraints (<5μs), a custom real-time system is necessary. We developed a prototype of the main building block of this system, the Pattern Recognition Mezzanine (PRM) that combines custom Associative Memory ASICs with modern FPGA devices. The architecture, functionality and test results of the PRM are described in the present work.
Onelli O.D., Kamp T.V.D., Skepper J.N., Powell J., Rolo T.D.S., Baumbach T., Vignolini S.
in Scientific Reports, 7 (2017), 1373. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-01496-8
© 2017 The Author(s). Structural colours in living organisms have been observed and analysed in a large number of species, however the study of how the micro- A nd nano-scopic natural structures responsible of such colourations develop has been largely ignored. Understanding the interplay between chemical composition, structural morphology on multiple length scales, and mechanical constraints requires a range of investigation tools able to capture the different aspects of natural hierarchical architectures. Here, we report a developmental study of the most widespread strategy for structural colouration in nature: The cuticular multilayer. In particular, we focus on the exoskeletal growth of the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula, capturing all aspects of its formation: The macroscopic growth is tracked via synchrotron microtomography, while the submicron features are revealed by electron microscopy and light spectroscopy combined with numerical modelling. In particular, we observe that the two main factors driving the formation of the colour-producing multilayers are the polymerization of melanin during the ecdysis and the change in the layer spacing during the sclerotisation of the cuticle. Our understanding of the exoskeleton formation provides a unique insight into the different processes involved during metamorphosis.