Losel P., Heuveline V.
in Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging – Proceedings of SPIE, 9784 (2016), 97842L. DOI:10.1117/12.2216202
© 2016 SPIE. Inspired by the diffusion of a particle, we present a novel approach for performing a semiautomatic segmentation of tomographic images in 3D, 4D or higher dimensions to meet the requirements of high-throughput measurements in a synchrotron X-ray microtomograph. Given a small number of 2D-slices with at least two manually labeled segments, one can either analytically determine the probability that an intelligently weighted random walk starting at one labeled pixel will be at a certain time at a specific position in the dataset or determine the probability approximately by performing several random walks. While the weights of a random walk take into account local information at the starting point, the random walk itself can be in any dimension. Starting a great number of random walks in each labeled pixel, a voxel in the dataset will be hit by several random walks over time. Hence, the image can be segmented by assigning each voxel to the label where the random walks most likely started from. Due to the high scalability of random walks, this approach is suitable for high throughput measurements. Additionally, we describe an interactively adjusted active contours slice by slice method considering local information, where we start with one manually labeled slice and move forward in any direction. This approach is superior with respect to accuracy towards the diffusion algorithm but inferior in the amount of tedious manual processing steps. The methods were applied on 3D and 4D datasets and evaluated by means of manually labeled images obtained in a realistic scenario with biologists.
Steinmann J.L., Blomley E., Brosi M., Brundermann E., Caselle M., Hiller N., Kehrer B., Muller A.-S., Schedler M., Schonfeldt P., Schuh M., Schwarz M., Siegel M.
in IPAC 2016 – Proceedings of the 7th International Particle Accelerator Conference (2016) 2855-2857.
Copyright © 2016 CC-BY-3.0 and by the respective authors. We present the effects of the filling pattern structure in multi-bunch mode on the beam spectrum. This effects can be seen by all detectors whose resolution is better than the RF frequency, ranging from stripline and Schottky measurements to high resolution synchrotron radiation measurements. Our heterodyne measurements of the emitted coherent synchrotron radiation at 270 GHz reveal discrete frequency harmonics around the 100 000th revolution harmonic of ANKA, the synchrotron radiation facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Significant effects of bunch spacing, gaps between bunch trains and variations in individual bunch currents on the emitted CSR spectrum are described by theory and supported by observations.
Bruckner A., Wehner K., Neis M., Heethoff M.
in Acarologia, 56 (2016).
© Brückner A. et al. Oribatid mites represent a diverse group of soil micro-arthropods. They have evolved a broad range of defensive chemical and morphological traits (e.g. sclerotization, ptychoidy, biomineralization). Chemical defense, rather than sclerotization, can provide protection against large predators (staphylinid beetles) and many oribatid mite species are also well protected against gamasid soil mites using morphological traits (“enemy-free-space hypothesis”). However, since predatory mites and staphylinid beetles have different types of attacking and feeding, the adaptive values of chemical and morphological traits might differ accordingly. We used the oribatid model species Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki and the common gamasid mite Stratiolaelaps miles Berlese in a predator-prey experiment. We tested for effects of chemical defense (treatments with and without oil gland secretions) and sclerotization (treatments with unsclerotized tritonymphs and sclerotized adults) in an orthogonal design. In contrast to attacks by large predators, chemical defense was mostly ineffective against gamasid mites. Sclerotization, however, had a positive effect. Hence, in a natural environment with diverse types of predators, the “enemy-free space” seems only realizable by combinations of chemical and morphological protective traits.
van de Kamp T., Riedel A., Greven H.
in Arthropod Structure and Development, 45 (2016) 14-22. DOI:10.1016/j.asd.2015.10.002
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.The elytral cuticle of 40 beetle species, comprising 14 weevils (Curculionoidea) and 26 representatives of other taxa, is examined. All weevils and 18 other species have an endocuticle with prominent macrofibers, which corresponds to a modified pseudo-orthogonal cuticle. Angles between successive layers of macrofibers range between 30° and 90°, but are constantly less than 60° in weevils. In all Curculionoidea, as well as in one buprestid and one erotylid species exo- and endocuticle are densely interlocked. In the weevil Sitophilus granarius, transmission electron microscopy revealed vertical microfibrils extending from the exocuticle between the macrofibers of the underlaying endocuticle. Vertical microfibrils connecting successive macrofiber layers of the endocuticle were observed in S. granarius and Trigonopterus nasutus. Distinct cuticular characters are traced on a beetle phylogeny: the angles between unidirectional endocuticle layers; the presence and the shape of endocuticular macrofibers; and the interlocking of exo- and endocuticle. While character traits seem to be more or less randomly distributed among Coleoptera, the Curculionoidea have a uniform groundplan: The “weevil-specific” combination of characters includes 1) interlocking of exo- and endocuticle, 2) an endocuticle with distinct ovoid macrofibers embedded in a matrix and 3) comparatively small angles between successive endocuticular layers. Thus, phylogenetic constraints appear equally important to functional factors in the construction of the weevil elytron.
Mangold S., Van De Kamp T., Steininger R.
in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 712 (2016), 012141. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/712/1/012141
The usefulness of full field transmission spectroscopy is shown using the example of mandible of the stick insect Peruphasma schultei. An advanced data evaluation tool chain with an energy drift correction and highly reproducible automatic background correction is presented. The results show significant difference between the top and the bottom of the mandible of an adult stick insect.
Kuhsel S., Bruckner A., Schmelzle S., Heethoff M., Bluthgen N.
in Insect Science (2016). DOI:10.1111/1744-7917.12362
© 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity.
Brosi M., Steinmann J.L., Blomley E., Brundermann E., Caselle M., Hiller N., Kehrer B., Mathis Y.-L., Nasse M.J., Rota L., Schedler M., Schonfeldt P., Schuh M., Schwarz M., Weber M., Muller A.-S.
in Physical Review Special Topics – Accelerators and Beams, 19 (2016), 110701. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.110701
© 2016, American Physical Society. All rights reserved. Dedicated optics with extremely short electron bunches enable synchrotron light sources to generate intense coherent THz radiation. The high degree of spatial compression in this so-called low-αc optics entails a complex longitudinal dynamics of the electron bunches, which can be probed studying the fluctuations in the emitted terahertz radiation caused by the microbunching instability (“bursting”). This article presents a “quasi-instantaneous” method for measuring the bursting characteristics by simultaneously collecting and evaluating the information from all bunches in a multibunch fill, reducing the measurement time from hours to seconds. This speed-up allows systematic studies of the bursting characteristics for various accelerator settings within a single fill of the machine, enabling a comprehensive comparison of the measured bursting thresholds with theoretical predictions by the bunched-beam theory. This paper introduces the method and presents first results obtained at the ANKA synchrotron radiation facility.
Karpov D., Dos Santos Rolo T., Rich H., Kryuchkov Y., Kiefer B., Fohtung E.
in Proceedings of SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering, 9931 (2016), 99312F. DOI:10.1117/12.2235865
© 2016 SPIE. Directional dependence of the index of refraction contains a wealth of information about anisotropic optical properties in semiconducting and insulating materials. Here we present a novel high-resolution lens-less technique that uses birefringence as a contrast mechanism to map the index of refraction and dielectric permittivity in optically anisotropic materials. We applied this approach successfully to a liquid crystal polymer film using polarized light from helium neon laser. This approach is scalable to imaging with diffraction-limited resolution, a prospect rapidly becoming a reality in view of emergent brilliant X-ray sources. Applications of this novel imaging technique are in disruptive technologies, including novel electronic devices, in which both charge and spin carry information as in multiferroic materials and photonic materials such as light modulators and optical storage.
Vogelgesang M., Farago T., Morgeneyer T.F., Helfen L., Dos Santos Rolo T., Myagotin A., Baumbach T.
in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 23 (2016) 1254-1263. DOI:10.1107/S1600577516010195
© 2016 International Union of Crystallography.Real-time processing of X-ray image data acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities allows for smart high-speed experiments. This includes workflows covering parameterized and image-based feedback-driven control up to the final storage of raw and processed data. Nevertheless, there is presently no system that supports an efficient construction of such experiment workflows in a scalable way. Thus, here an architecture based on a high-level control system that manages low-level data acquisition, data processing and device changes is described. This system is suitable for routine as well as prototypical experiments, and provides specialized building blocks to conduct four-dimensional in situ, in vivo and operando tomography and laminography.
Ametova E., Ferrucci M., Chilingaryan S., McCarthy M., Dewulf W.
in Proceedings – ASPE 2016 Annual Meeting (2016) 287-292.